THEORY OVERVIEW Understanding and implementing efficient movement patterns is essential to optimal performance. The goal of this chapter is to provide coaches and captains with an overview of movement efficiency as it relates to performance and how to apply this knowledge to help individual athletes. Coaches and captains will learn how to use the adidas movement performance qualities in combination with the EXOS movement philosophy and training system to to help athletes improve performance and decrease injury risk. As a result, coaches, captains, and athletes will understand the importance of mastering movement fundamentals. 6 INTRODUCTION 1. FOUNDATIONS OF MOVEMENT A) A strong foundation of efficient movement patterns allows athletes to reach optimal performance. The EXOS approach to building this foundation contains three building blocks: function, performance, and skill. These blocks must be substantial enough to support the next, creating buffer zones that help athletes reach optimal performance. B) Training programs that emphasise mobility, stability, and efficient movement patterns provide a functional launching point for performance development in areas such as speed, power, strength, and endurance. 2. OUR APPROACH A) We view the body and how it moves as an integrated system. A critical part of the EXOS training system is to create awareness around how the body is supposed to move and help the athlete identify movement compensations that inhibit performance. The EXOS training system focuses on three components — mobility, stability, and motor programming. I) Mobility - the ability to move freely through optimal range of motion. 1) Mobility can be influenced by joints and soft-tissue structures including fascia, muscles, nerves, and skin. II) Stability - the ability to control movement or sustain a position from external forces. Stability is required to improve efficiency and force production. 1) The ability to control the body in a full weight-bearing position through all planes of motion is the foundation for other performance qualities. III) Motor programming - the ability to achieve the proper motor pattern through intramuscular and intermuscular coordination. It’s a coordinated motor sequence that results from a combination of kinesthetic awareness and stability. Motor programs can be influenced by coaching and change over time. Two theories exist on motor control, but there is no consensus. 1) Generalized motor program - motor control is derived from memory-based motor programs.1 7 2) Dynamic systems theory - memory-based motor programs don’t exist. Instead, movement patterns arise on a second-by-second basis and are influenced by the organism, task, and environment. All of this is in an effort to accommodate the infinite ways humans could move and to protect the body (and the brain) from physical harm.1 8 1. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT A) The concept of functional movement was evolved by Gray Cook. 2,3 He introduced a model and common language that solidified the connection between movement rehabilitation, conditioning, and fitness. 2. POSITION, PATTERN, POWER A) In order to optimize performance, limiting factors of functional movement must be identified. EXOS categorizes these limiting factors as range of motion and stability, coordination, and strength quality. These mirror the bottom two levels of Cook’s optimum performance pyramid that EXOS has evolved into position, pattern, and power. THEORY Figure 1. Adapted from Gray Cook’s Optimum Performance Pyramid2. Figure 2. Limiting factors associated with position, pattern, and power. FUNCTIONAL SKILL FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT INEFICIENCY DYSFUNCTION EFICIENCY FUNCTION POWER PATTERN POSITION COORDINATION STRENGTH QUALITY ROM & STABILITY 9 I) Position - the biomechanical relationship between joints and segments, and the foundation of functional movement. Positions represent the orientation of the body that optimizes or inhibits the desired movement pattern. 1) Creating proper angles at critical points in movement drives the pattern that leads to maximum speed, power, strength, endurance, and overall output. 2) Positions are dependent on mobility and stability. II) Pattern - the ability to coordinate effective patterns of movement. Execution of effective movement patterns is dependent on the ability to optimize positions within the movement. 1) Proper movement patterns begin with correct positioning. Once the proper position is achieved, the movement pattern can be refined to ensure efficiency in movement patterns such as squatting, hinging, lunging, running, crawling, rolling, reaching. 2) Limiting factors in patterns are the result of loss of coordination or motor control, which leads to compensated movement patterns. Patterns are dependent on stability, motor control, and endurance. III) Power - the rate at which force is applied to an object at a specific instance in time. EXOS evaluates pattern and power across several body segments to accomplish balanced total-body power. 1) Training various levels of power is pivotal to performance optimization because it allows athletes to adjust their movements during expected and unexpected changes in movement strength and speed. 14 2) Power is the ability to express strength qualities throughout clean movement patterns at any given moment, reducing risk of injury and increasing overall performance. a) Example - the ability to consistently sustain running endurance training without injury because the athlete has proper running mechanics / positions and the ability to express / transfer the proper power through each stride. 3) We believe that in order to develop the ability to express power in a manner that improves performance and decreases risk of injury, it’s important to ensure a high quality of movement positions and patterns first. 1 0 3. MOVEMENT EFFICIENCY A) Movement efficiency is the combined result of mobility, stability and motor control. A lack of any one of these in any area of the body causes wasted energy, leading to compensation patterns and potential injury and pain. Developing mobility, stability, and efficient movement patterns improves performance while reducing risk of injury. I) Wasted energy occurs when the body is unable to handle the amount of force being transferred through it. Instead of an efficient transfer, energy escapes through segments of the chain. These segments of the chain are often found within the pillar at the shoulders, torso, and hips. 1) Wasted energy at the shoulders can lead to common pain or injury in the neck, elbow, or wrist. 2) Wasted energy at the torso can lead to common pain or injury in the upper and lower back and extremities 3) Wasted energy at the hips can lead to common pain or injury in the hip, trunk, knee, ankle, or foot. II) Movement compensation patterns occur when an entire system of the body has been altered. As a result, certain areas of the body compensate to make up for loss of function in other areas. Every muscle of the body is built to perform a primary function 12. Depending on the body position, that primary function may be a prime mover or a stabilizer. 1) Example - If an athlete is unable to effectively activate and extend their hip using their glute (primary extensor), the hamstring will take over that role. This places excess stress on the tissue and can lead to strained hamstrings. 2) Example - If an athlete lacks full extension mobility at the hip joint, the body will steal that mobility from somewhere else, often the low back. This can force extreme lumbar extension, placing excess stress on the spine and increasing the chance for low back injuries. III) Movement compensation forces muscles to play dual roles, which causes stress, decreased performance, and increased potential for aches, pain, and injury. 1) Compensatory patterns can be a product of postural dysfunction and 1 1 global movement dysfunction, which are interdependent and reinforce one another. a) Other primary contributing factors can include poor training habits and lack of recovery from hard training13. b) It’s EXOS’ experience that a substantial amount of injuries in elite sport aren’t from trauma but rather from the imbalances that produce compensations over time. 2) Primary causes of compensation patterns are a) Biomechanical restriction - mobility and stability limiting factors b) Motor programming or poor movement patterns c) Pain 4. MOVEMENT QUALITY A) Movement quality is based on key movement patterns and the ability to kinetically link those patterns to complete a complex task. Having poor or inefficient movement is a predictor of injury and poor performance. I) Kinetic linking - the body’s ability to effectively coordinate the creation of force at any point and transfer that force through the body to some external implement, or“skilled act.”11 1) Ideal movement efficiency eliminates wasted energy and is highly dependent on the strength and stability of the body’s pillar (shoulders, torso, and hips). 2) Decreased wasted energy means increased kinetic linking, which leads to optimal transfer of force. 3) Kinetic linking allows the body to generate and transfer energy throughout the body efficiently. This results in less wasted energy and improved performance output, movement efficiency, and recycling of energy. a) Example - while running, energy is absorbed and generated from each foot strike. This energy needs to be efficiently transferred throughout the body to ensure the foot, ankle, knee, hip, or back don’t “leak” or waste that energy, creating increased tissue stress in that area, which can lead to pain or injury. 1 2 5. PERFORMANCE QUALITIES DEFINED A) Qualities that EXOS considers essential for optimal performance. These performance qualities are interdependent, having a strong influence on one another. All qualities should be considered to enhance overall performance. I) Control - The ability to protect the body from pain and injury through a combination of clean movement, stability, and mobility. II) Agility - The ability to react to external stimuli and move one’s body within a chaotic, multidirectional environment III) Speed - The ability to leverage acceleration and absolute speed to cover distances in a straight line in less time. IV) Strength - The ability to apply force, irrespective of time. V) Explosivity - The ability to apply force in less time. VI) Fitness - The ability to sustain efforts of varying intensities over time without fatigue or decay in performance. B) Control - Mobility, stability, and motor control are the foundational components of functional movement and the launching point for performance development (speed, power, strength, endurance, etc.). Movement compensations and wasted energy that lead to pain and injury can be the result of poor quality in any of these three components. The EXOS training system is designed to minimize wasted energy through progressive training uniquely applied to each individual. I) Movement efficiency underpins all levels of the Optimum Performance Pyramid. The fundamentals of position and pattern are addressed through EXOS’ understanding of functional anatomy and kinesiology as they relate to the integration of the hips, torso and shoulders, which EXOS calls the pillar. C) Agility - Agility can also be referred to as multidirectional speed, which is a category of movement skills. Movement skills represent an individual’s ability to apply the highest speed at the right time with the right angle of force into the ground. I) Movements and movement sequences that occur in sport under nonreacti- DIGITAL EDUCATION CHAPTER OUTLINE 1 3 ve (closed skill) and reactive (open skill) conditions. May also be referred to as multidirectional speed. 1) The intersection of the following three factors is the foundation to improving agility. a) Individual (or athlete) b) Task (change of direction) c) Environment (reactive agility) D) Speed - the rate an individual can change position (linearly or multidirectionally) over a specific distance. In order to achieve speed, an athlete must increase the rate at which neuromotor abilities are coordinated. Coordination and movement efficiency directly influence the production of power, which is the motor behind speed. Simply put, the more power you have, the more speed you can generate. I) Linear speed training - developing the technique and power required to project the body in one direction. Linear movement can be broken down into start, acceleration, transition, and absolute speed mechanics. Figure 3. A representation of the intersection of athlete, task, and environment as the basis for agility. TASK ENVIRONMENT ATHLETE CHANGE OF DIRECTION REACTIVE AGILITY 1 4 II) Absolute speed training - developing the mechanics required to maintain velocity over a distance. E) Strength - the ability of a given muscle or group of muscles to generate muscular force under specific conditions. This specificity leads to the numerous types of strength that can be expressed in specific conditions. For example, strength endurance versus max output. I) Strength develops based on how the nervous system controls the body. Neuromuscular efficiency is the nervous system’s ability to excite particular motor units to either produce or reduce force. a) The goal of the EXOS training system is to ensure efficiency and optimal performance across the various qualities of strength along the force-velocity curve, such as: I) Maximal strength II) Strength-speed III) Power IV) Speed-strength V) Strength endurance (dynamic and static) 1) Any point along the curve is considered maximal effort and the EXOS training system develops each of these qualities of strength through various training components. VELOCITY FORCE FORCE VELOCITY CURVE 1 5 F) Explosivity - Explosivity can also be referred to as power, which is the rate at which force is applied to an object at any instant in time. Power requires that work is done, meaning something or someone moves from one position to another. I) Plyometrics - movements designed to link optimal strength and speed to build power and the ability to express explosive or reactive movements. 1) Plyometric movement is the critical bridge between activities in the weight room and execution in competition. 2) Include any drill utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle to produce an explosive movement. a) Movements include jumps, hops, and bounds in various planes of movement and of various heights and distances. b) Coaches should consider an athlete’s goals, such as general health, strength, speed, or sport-specific. G) Fitness - a measure of cardiovascular ability. I) General fitness - the ability to match the appropriate energy system response to the intensity of the demand. II) Specific fitness - how well an individual can sustain a given power output over a period of time in a specific repetitive task or set of tasks. 1) There are specific physiologic energy systems that supply energy to the human system in response to performing these tasks, and each can be examined to identify limiting factors. 2) Measurements that might be examined in evaluating fitness include VO2 max, VO2 at anaerobic (AT) or ventilatory threshold (VT), peak power, power at AT / VT, and power degradation. 1-4 4-20 15-60 60-180 180-240+ ATP ADP+PCR FAST GLYCOLOSIS FAST AND SLOW GLYCOLOSIS SLOW GLYCOLOSIS ANAEROBIC - ALACTATE ANAEROBIC - ALACTATE ANAEROBIC - LACTATE ANAEROBIC/ AEROBIC AEROBIC - FFA/ GLYCOGEN TIME ENERGY SUPPLY ENERGY SYSTEM Brooks, F. (2005) McArdle, W. (2010) 1 6 6. DESIGNING FOR MOVEMENT - THE EXOS TRAINING SYSTEM A) EXOS uses an eight-component training system to guide the creation of training programs. When employed correctly, it provides a balanced approach to improving the performance qualities individually and as a group. B) Training sessions are made up of one or more training components. Each component has a recommended volume, intensity, and load specific to the person. C) The eight components are: pillar preparation, movement preparation, plyometrics, movement skills, medicine ball, strength and power, energy systems development, and regeneration. I) Pillar preparation - The body’s pillar, which consists of the hips, torso, and shoulders, is the foundation for all movement. The goal of pillar prep is to optimize kinetic linking and prime critical muscles to prepare the body for a workout, decreasing injury risk and boosting performance. Components of pillar prep include soft tissue, mobility, and stability. II) Movement preparation - Movement prep is an efficient and effective warmup. It includes dynamic stretches that increase core temperature, prepare the nervous system for exercise, and lengthen, strengthen, and stabilize the body. There are five components of movement prep are general warmup, muscle activation, dynamic muscle elongation, properly engrained movement patterns, and central nervous system activation III) Plyometrics - Plyometrics improve muscle elasticity and flexibility with jumping, hopping, and bounding movements that emphasize the stretch-shortening cycle to produce an explosive movement. This trains the body to create and absorb forces dynamically to reduce injury risk and improve performance. Plyometric components include movement, direction, and initiation. IV) Movement skills- Movement skills help athletes move faster and more efficiently through the development of linear and/or multidirectional skills such as acceleration, deceleration, crossover, shuffle, and absolute speed. These skills also reduce the risk of injury and can be developed through drills designed to improve the motor programming and skill application of linear and multidirectional speed. 1 7 V) Medicine ball - Medicine ball training improves the ability to efficiently transfer energy through the body, which increases strength and power. It includes ballistic drills and total-body plyometric movements across the hips, torso, and shoulder complex and involves the transfer of force into an object, implement, or opponent. VI) Strength and power - A movement-based approach to strength training allows for integration of proper sequencing of muscle recruitment across different combinations of patterns and demands. This creates a solid foundation to build on performance and minimize injury. Athletes should always consider training in all planes of motion and through all movement patterns to optimize performance. VII) Energy systems development - Energy systems development is deliberate cardiovascular work that helps athletes upgrade metabolic performance by focusing on individualized, targeted zones. The goal is to shift the entire power sustainability curve curve up, enabling athletes to work at higher intensity for longer periods of time. VIII) Regeneration - Regeneration relieves tension, alleviates aches and pains, reduces stress, and helps the body recover faster. EXOS defines regeneration as any activity that proactively or reactively facilitates recovery. Regeneration must be implemented with adequate proportions, durations, timing, and types of strategies to maintain healthy self-regulating function with increased demand and allostatic load8. 1) Abrahamse, E. L., Ruitenberg, M. F. L., de Kleine, E. & Verwey, W. B. “Control of automated behavior: insights from the discrete sequence production task.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (2013). 2) Cook, G. Movement. Aptos, CA: On Target Publications, 2012. 3) Sahrmann, Shirley. Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2008. 4) Stone, Michael H., Bill Sands, and Meg Stone. Principles and Practice of Resistance Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2007. 5) Cardinale, Marco, Rob Newton, and Kazunori Nosaka. Strength and Conditioning: Biological Principles and Practical Applications. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. 6) Fapta, S. S. P. T. P. Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. (Mosby, 2001). 7) [PDF] Evidence based exercise - Prof. Ricardo Souza. 8) Heylighen, F. & Joslyn, C. Cybernetics and second order cybernetics. Encyclopedia of physical science & technology 4, 155–170 (2001). 9) Kreher, J. B. Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies. Open Access J Sports Med 7, 115–122 (2016). 10) Kellmann, M. Enhancing Recovery: Preventing UnderPerformance in Athletes. (Human Kinetics, 2002). 11) Zatsiorsky, V. M. & Kraemer, W. Science and Practice of Strength Training, Second Edition. (Human Kinetics Publisher, 2006) R E F E R E N C E S 12) Lieber, R. L. Skeletal Muscle Structure, Function, and Plasticity. (LWW, 2009). 13) Wang, R. & Gutierrez-Farewik, E. M. Compensatory strategies during walking in response to excessive muscle co-contraction at the ankle joint. Gait Posture 39, 926–932 (2014). 14) National Strength and Conditioning Association. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning - 3rd Edition. (Human Kinetics, 2008)